service animals and housing

Service animals play a crucial role in the lives of many individuals with disabilities. They provide assistance, support, and companionship, helping their handlers lead independent and fulfilling lives. However, when it comes to housing, service animal owners may face challenges and misconceptions about their rights and responsibilities. This comprehensive guide aims to provide clarity on the subject, covering everything from legal rights and regulations to practical tips for finding rental homes that accommodate service animals.

Understanding Service Animals and Emotional Support Animals

Before delving into the world of housing and service animals, it’s essential to understand the difference between service animals and emotional support animals (ESAs).

Service Animals

A service animal is defined as a dog that has been individually trained to perform tasks or do work for a person with a disability. These tasks must be directly related to the person’s disability, such as guiding a visually impaired person or alerting someone with epilepsy of an impending seizure. Service animals are protected by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which allows them to accompany their handlers in public places where pets are typically not allowed.

Emotional Support Animals

An emotional support animal, on the other hand, is an animal that provides comfort and companionship to a person with a mental or emotional disability. While ESAs do not need to be trained to perform specific tasks, they must be prescribed by a licensed mental health professional. ESAs are not considered service animals under the ADA but have certain housing protections under the Fair Housing Act (FHA).

Legal Rights and Regulations: The Fair Housing Act

The Fair Housing Act (FHA) is a federal law that prohibits discrimination in housing based on factors such as race, religion, and disability. This law also provides specific protections for individuals with disabilities who rely on service animals or emotional support animals.

How Allowing Animals Can Prove Profitable for Landlords

Allowing animals in rental properties can be a great way for landlords to increase their profit potential and decrease vacancy time. Animals can provide a range of benefits for landlords, including increased rental income, reduced tenant turnover, and improved tenant satisfaction.

Reasonable Accommodations

Under the FHA, landlords and housing providers must make “reasonable accommodations” for individuals with disabilities who require service animals or ESAs. This means that even if a rental property has a “no pets” policy or breed restrictions, the landlord must make exceptions for service animals and emotional support animals. However, there are certain situations in which a landlord may legally refuse a service or emotional support animal.

Exemptions and Exceptions

A landlord can legally refuse a service or emotional support animal if:

  1. The animal poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others.
  2. The animal causes substantial damage to the property of others.
  3. The rental property is a single-family home rented by the owner without the use of a broker, and the owner owns less than four rental units.
  4. The rental property is a dwelling of four or fewer units, and the owner occupies one of the units.

Documentation and Verification

When requesting a reasonable accommodation for a service animal or ESA, individuals must provide documentation of their disability and their need for the animal. For service animals, this may include a letter from a healthcare professional stating the nature of the disability and the tasks the animal performs. For emotional support animals, a letter from a licensed mental health professional is required.

It’s important to note that landlords and housing providers cannot require individuals to disclose their specific diagnosis or provide extensive medical records. They also cannot require service animals to be professionally trained or registered, as individuals have the right to train their service animals themselves.

Finding Rental Homes That Welcome Service Animals and ESAs

While the FHA provides legal protections for service animal and ESA owners, finding rental homes that accommodate these animals can still be a challenge. Here are some tips to make the process easier:

  1. Start by researching the local rental market: Familiarize yourself with the rental homes in your desired area and make a list of potential properties that meet your needs. Be sure to consider factors such as accessibility, proximity to amenities, and public transportation.
  2. Prepare your documentation: Gather all necessary documents, such as your disability verification letter, service animal or ESA prescription letter, and any additional information that demonstrates your animal’s good behavior and training.
  3. Communicate openly with potential landlords: When inquiring about rental homes, be upfront about your need for a service animal or ESA. Explain the nature of your disability and the role your animal plays in your life. Be prepared to provide documentation if requested.
  4. Be proactive in addressing concerns: If a landlord expresses concerns about accommodating your service animal or ESA, make an effort to address these concerns in a calm and respectful manner. Offer to provide additional information or references to demonstrate your animal’s good behavior and training.
  5. Know your rights: Familiarize yourself with the FHA and ADA regulations pertaining to service animals and housing. If you believe you are being discriminated against, you may file a complaint with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) or your state’s fair housing agency.

Rental Property Do’s & Don’ts for First-Time Landlords

Owning a rental property can be an excellent long-term investment that provides long-term equity creation and current cash flow. While there are plenty of benefits that come with investing in real estate, becoming a landlord does come with new responsibilities and challenges.

Tips for a Smooth Transition with Your Service Animal or ESA in Rental Homes

To ensure a positive experience for both you and your landlord, follow these tips when moving into a new rental home with your service animal or ESA:

  1. Communicate clearly and professionally: Maintain open lines of communication with your landlord and address any concerns or questions they may have.
  2. Ensure your animal behaves appropriately: While there are no specific training requirements for service animals or ESAs, it’s essential to ensure that they behave properly in various settings. This includes not causing damage to property, excessive noise, or aggression towards others.
  3. Abide by local rules and regulations: Be sure to comply with local animal control and public health requirements, such as vaccinations, licensing, and leash laws.
  4. Educate yourself about your legal rights: Understanding your rights as a service animal or ESA owner can prepare you to defend yourself against unlawful discrimination and help educate others about these laws.

What to Do if Your Landlord Denies Your Service Animal or ESA

If your landlord refuses to make reasonable accommodations for your service animal or ESA, despite providing the necessary documentation, there are steps you can take to resolve the issue:

  1. Request a formal letter explaining the rejection: This can help you understand the landlord’s reasoning and provide a basis for further action.
  2. Respond in writing: Write a letter (or email) to the landlord, stating that you have provided all legally required documents and that their refusal constitutes a violation of the FHA. Inform them that you will be contacting HUD or your state’s fair housing agency to file an official discrimination complaint. Maintain a calm and neutral tone throughout the correspondence.
  3. File a complaint with HUD or your state’s fair housing agency: If the landlord continues to refuse your service animal or ESA, you can file a complaint with the appropriate agency, either online or by mail.

Frequently Asked Questions about Service Animals, ESAs, and Housing

Here’s a list of frequently asked questions about service animals, emotional support animals, and housing:

How do I qualify for a service animal or ESA?

To qualify for a service animal or ESA, you must have a diagnosed disability that significantly impacts your daily life. A healthcare professional (for service animals) or licensed mental health professional (for ESAs) must prescribe the animal to help you manage your disability.

Are landlords required to accept service animals and ESAs?

Under the FHA, landlords must make reasonable accommodations for service animals and ESAs, regardless of “no pets” policies or property restrictions. However, there are certain situations in which a landlord is not required to allow your service animal or ESA.

Can I be charged pet fees for my service animal or ESA?

No, service animals and ESAs are not considered pets, so landlords cannot charge pet fees or deposits. However, if your service animal or ESA causes damage to the property, the landlord may charge you for the damages.

Are there specific breeds of dogs that can be service animals?

No, the ADA does not restrict the type of dog breeds that can be service animals. However, some municipalities may have breed restrictions that apply to all dogs, including service animals.

Can I be denied housing based on the breed of my service animal?

No, a landlord cannot refuse a service animal based solely on assumptions or stereotypes about the animal’s breed. However, if the specific service animal poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others, the landlord may legally refuse the animal.

What are my options if I believe I have been discriminated against?

If you feel you have been unlawfully denied housing or have experienced discrimination due to your service animal or ESA, you can file a complaint with HUD or your state’s fair housing agency.


Navigating the world of housing with a service animal or ESA can be challenging, but understanding your rights and responsibilities can make the process smoother. By educating yourself on the FHA and ADA regulations, communicating openly with landlords, and ensuring your service animal or ESA behaves appropriately, you can find rental homes that welcome and accommodate your needs.

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